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4 Temmuz 2012 Çarşamba


Meeting the needs of producers rather than from reason, sales, exchange and wage labor and commodity production system is a profit-making purpose.   Pre-modern era were found in many an instance of capitalism. Stage of capitalist political and religious control, but he was limited to interventions. The study area is "modernity", which most affect students case, the capitalist enterprise (and its associated networks of monetary affairs Sunday) and is largely unregulated sovereignty of the enormous political and cultural arena.             Capitalism is the "capital" (capital) "is derived from the word. It should be emphasized the distinction based on the concepts of the production process to the capital and capitalism. Capitals, used in the production of other goods that have been used for direct consumption, natural or man-made material (concrete) objects. Machines, equipment, agricultural and industrial equipment, buildings, fabrics, metals and raw materials oluşturlar capital. Capital is based on the production process, is used as capital intensive. All the modern production methods require a substantial amount of capital, "capital-based production process" is a relative concept. For example, ortaçağda'da fabric, advanced textile machines used today are produced on hand looms very basik. Therefore assumed to be more productive, more capital-intensive techniques. Passes through various stages could be seen when we look at the evolution of Capitalism. Capitalist movements in the first period to the present day was çağlaradan. 15. century after the moment when the various capitalist phenomena we see capitalism as systematic gerçekleşsede. 15. After a century of capitalism is laid out in the following ways. a) Merkantailizm The birth of the formation of national states and the Renaissance movement Merkantililizm reform in religion, new inventions, changes in economic structures and events that take place in the late Middle Ages, such as the spread of the printing press. Allowing for the formation of Merkentilizmin. As for the fundamental principles of mercantilism, the main source of wealth, gold, silver, precious metals, such as interest, an understanding of the economy since the population is now the understanding is created ticeratte mübadeleci tooth and nationalist (nationalist doctrines. Mercantilist thought to give the effect of all state support to industry, agriculture, neglect and financial reforms to take place goosey, and explore new opportunities have opened a new idea has emerged, called Physiocracy. b) Physiocracy Mercantilist thought and policy prepares the factors at the same time the collapse of laissez-faire (let them do it) based on the idea of ​​preparing the emergence of industrial capitalism. Physiocrat a sense of thought, which inspired the opinions of liberalism as a doctrine that is considered a transition period. c) the classical school and the Liberal düşümce d) The practice of liberal capitalism Teknolaojik developments, productive forces and the resulting changes in the relations of production as a result, more conflict, more and more institutions of pre-industrial era, as a result of "laissez-faire" (leave should 'come) gave the victory.       e) Struggling Capitalism Emperyelim which is a factor that favors the development of liberal capitalism, a war inevitably sürüklaemiştir world. Lberalizmin break with the principles of capitalism began with the First World War, with the effect of development in a number of emerging capitalism, then never again 19 dönememiştir-century liberalism. 1. After World War II period, "interventionist capitalism is customary to speak of. In later times there is significant variation in the outcome müdehaleci capitalism were to be social and political changes. Especially with the collapse of capitalism, USSR. Has made little progress. Capitalism is coming to the present day within the period of "globalization" is trying to protect the power of the name. With globalization, anti-globalization movement has shown itself in. This process has increased in the movement against capitalism. As always, one of the obstacles in front of the Socialist organizations of capitalism. Capitalism is one of the means of industrialization. Is in the hands of private ownership and profit-making use of the means of production, goods production, distribution and pricing of the free market mechanism of supply and demand of an economic system that is determined freely. Human and capital, where an individual or a partnership of private property under the form of economic organization. Maksimizasyonudur.Kapitalist basic theory of capitalism is competition and the profit level of productivity in the economy and maintain and develop high-efficiency target. arçlarınım private ownership of production and all the profit to be obtained ütetimden means that special person and party. impossible without the existence of capitalism, private property of the cornerstones of capitalism birisidir.yani   Capitalism is defined by a lot of people at the beginning of them come from Karl Marx and Max Weber. MARX most essential element of capitalism, production, and again according to her count used for the exploitation of labor power: the exchange value of labor power is reflected in the form of a fee, produced on behalf of the capitalist is less than the value haha. Shall be confiscated by our so-called surplus value and capital stock of the difference is added to the capitalist. This forms the basis of class conflict and the cycle repeats.   But Marx's exploitation of its association with capitalism, all kinds of labor value, based on the thesis that therefore a source of profit. But this, anadamar economics, and even criticized by many Marxists.   Max Weber saw as a change in the market as the defining feature of capitalism. Accordingly, the modern West, capitalism typically means calculating rationality akılsallığı ie, deferred satisfaction with the social relations through the leaves the store of wealth and economic relations. Capitalism is seen in other institutions of private property required for the formal sense free labor, raw materials markets for the network, as the products of labor and monetary system is a comprehensive sıralanıyordu.               Economic system that dominated the Western world since the fall of feudalism. Anamalcılık, Sermayecilik, free market economics, free enterprise economy is also called names. Liberal system, free trade, capitalism, mixed economy also indicates the statements. The main feature of the capitalist economy in private hands, the vast majority of the means of production and the production and distribution of income have substantially the functioning of markets is that direction. Dating back to the late Middle Ages ilkçağa Roots capitalism began to flourish in certain regions of Europe. However, the establishment of a system that took place after the sixteenth century. Sixteen, seventeen and eighteenth centuries, the British cloth industry growth has accelerated the development of capitalism. Consumption in excess of pre-capitalist systems of production in order to widen the use of part of the production kapitalitesinin was leaving. Many historical factors also reinforced this development. The effects of traditional morality in the sixteenth century reform movement whileit breaks humiliating effort to conserve the hard work and gave a religious basis. Now the moral of the rich economic inequality can be easily defended on the grounds. Another factor contributing to the development of capitalism in Europe and its result, the price spike was an increase in the supply of precious metals. During this period, inflation has increased prices faster than wages have benefited most owners of capital. The first capitalists (1500-1750) Mercantilist period also benefited from the emergence of strong national states. An example of national empowerment policies pursued by these states, such as money and legal systems necessary for economic development and as a result the formation of the basic social conditions helped shift the weight from the state to private enterprise. Trade, industry, the focus of capitalist development in England in the eighteenth century record. Provided in previous years, capital accumulation during the Industrial Revolution on the implementation of technical information used in the industry. Adam Smith (1723-1790) "The Causes and Sources of Wealth of Nations a review" revealed in his ideology of classical capitalism. Smith, the development of societies in various stages of Marxist theory, set them apart from similar manner. Accordingly, hunting societies, nomadic lifestyle based on agriculture, through the stages of the feudal farming and trade interdependence. Each stage has its own institutions. There was no need for the judicial institutions, for example, whether the property during hunting. But with the growth of the social environment, as well as regular armies as a means of protection of private property and government agency developed a variety of privileges. Thus emerged a more complex organization. Fees set by the market instead of guilds, the state placed restrictions on private enterprise capitalism of free competition, subsequently disappeared as the final stage, called the "perfect liberty" phase. At this stage, activities to improve the situation of individuals according to their own desires into socially beneficial results the mechanism of competition. For example, individuals with a competitive struggle of prices of goods, except for temporary deviations corresponding to the cost of production consists of natural levels. Workers in the three main classes of society that make up the national wealth, the landowners and industrialists in the form of wages to be issued again to the highest level for the common good as the rent and profit split. Thus, self-correcting market mechanism functioning without government intervention and self-consistently provides social regularity. Also increases the national wealth of the individuals pursue their own interests. Business division of labor productivity growth is the foundation of the economy. Individuals with the division of labor on the one hand while increasing their productivity, but also contributes to an increase in social productivity. Interventions to prevent the functioning of the system of privileges and allow competitive unless the state of national wealth to grow steadily, the community itself will reach the best point. After the French Revolution and Napoleon Wars swept the remnants of feudalism Smith's proposed policies were put in place more and more. The main policies of political liberalism in the nineteenth century, free trade, sound money (gold standard), a balanced budget and kept itself in the form of social assistance showed extremely limited. I. World War II was a turning point in the development of capitalism. After the war, narrowed the international markets, the gold standard was replaced by international currency, the banking area, the hegemony passed from Europe to the United States, African and Asian nations engaged in the struggles against colonialism and foreign trade barriers successfully added new ones. Which distinguish it from the Great Depression of 1929 the economy of the state of capitalism in many countries, the famous "laissez-faire" policy of putting an end to a period of time raises doubts about the future of the capitalist system. However, II. After World War II America, European countries and Japan show the success of the system continues to live Not to be the power of the Eastern bloc countries in recent years significantly affect the success of the competition and won in the face of communism. Today the most popular and powerful state of the economic system of capitalism, philosophical foundations, rules, objectives and expected outcomes in terms of Islam, is just opposite. Capitalism creates the basis of materialism. S sole purpose is to achieve material prosperity, and it predicted a person to consume as they wish. Recognizes an individual who wishes to achieve this goal, unlimited freedom. So they are very much individualists. The only principle that defined the lives of people and society as market conditions and competition. If opportunism and ruthlessness of his moral rules. People are always directed to make more profit karşılaşmamalıdır no barriers to their passions. All this led to the operating state of an inhuman capitalism. The individual recognizes and accepts unlimited freedom "laissez-faire" policy serves naturally to most business owners of capital, the impoverishment of the masses, has led to exploitation. Insatiable passion for the capitalist, capitalism, property, and to spread beyond the borders of the world, especially the poorest countries to the extent that led to the plunder of natural resources.                                                                          Liberalism   If we want to explain what liberalism is liberalism, we need to know. Liberalism or erkincilik, dealing with freedom as the primary political value as an ideology, politics, tradition and the stream of thought. Liberalism in general, that individuals have the freedom of expression, religion, government, and sometimes restricted by the power of institutions, ideas circulated freely, allowing the private sector is a free market economy, rule of law and social life of the current scheme which aims to model a transparent state.   Liberalism is the dominant ideologies of Western democracies often sayılsada origins in Enlightenment thought, the liberal teachings should be noted that the hybrid format. It is clear that only the face of what liberalism: Liberalism, If you like the feudal monarchy, the military, whether clerical or communitarian. Every kind of absolutism (a device that dominated the center of power in the state form is collected in a single person of the monarch.) Opposes. This is in contrast direnebilmelerini seeks to provide individuals and groups against the authoritarian demands. This means in practice, on the one hand, the rights defined in the public world is the most common of these rights-which is privately owned-specific separation of the world, on the other hand, the fulfillment of religion, freedom of speech and movement of people has to do is collected.               A classic John Locke d., David Hume, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill's philosophy of these writers through özdeşleştirilir.Adı people's enlightened self-interest, akılsallık öngörentoplum contract theory of a world driven by free choice, and emphasizes the lives of individuals and the state's minimum level advocate to intervene. Liberalism as well as can be seen on the basis of the economic doctrines of Adam Smith yazılarıda. Both the constitutional guarantees, and (in the life of all citizens, property, freedom of expression, freedom of religion rights, inalienable rights owned ship on some of the freedoms they may also have a say in the management of the country is usually through voting) representative democracies are closely related. Natural management rights of kings, hereditary succession, composed of many basic acceptance of the theory of the state religion of liberalism as opposed to the old state. All the liberals of the individual right to life, liberty and property as the right to accept and support the basic human rights. However, in many countries, modern liberalism, in terms of provision of social welfare, the state is a minimal restriction on the freedom of the individual, arguing that the power of the classical liberalism separated.   The roots of liberalism in the west kazansan process of enlightenment, the different points of the political spectrum from right to left for today, including the term, freedom defines a line of thought based.   18 Liberal economic doctrine At the end of century France and England, mercantilism (commercial capitalism) and the new-born as a reaction by the spokesman of industrial capitalism emerged. At the beginning of France's own economic structure appropriate: agricultural capitalism was doing the spokesman. Later, both in France and England was the defender of emerging industrial capitalism. The new emerging entrepreneurial class in the society, limiting their activity against all the records. Mercantilism monopolies, public inspection, privileges, arising from the power of the nobles opposed the ownership of land will be with him, for his interest in freedom, individual initiative and wanted to control the individual. This process will be with him to justify their world view has led to the formation of a new philosophy. World opinion "economic liberalism", policy "liberal economic doctrine" was. Understand the emergence of economic liberalism, in this respect, the emergence of mercantilism reaction conditions that create the infrastructure, on the other hand, requires an understanding of the philosophical views oluştuduğu or benefit for himself.             Their analysis whatever the nature of economic theory, economists have established theories to justify the liberal economic doctrine, the three schools of economics come together: Physiocrats, Classical and Neo-Classical School School. 18. continued until the end of the period established in the present century theories, such as the application of mathematics to changes in economics, but has not changed worldview. The main goal of the principles of liberalism derived from sources within the philosophical defense of a particular social order ever proven that the best and most fair order.             Liberalism is the first time in the past and the 19th Spanish to English Beginning of the century has entered the political terminology. According to one view, Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations "liberal export and import system," writes the words have been the first to use the concept of a liberal. Over time, widespread use of the concept, towards the end of mid-century and thoroughly settled in the political lexicon, "laissez faire, laissez passer" took place in the expression and freedom of thought, freedom of expression, freedom of the press and has become a label used in the naming of the advocates of free trade. Etymological sense of "liberalism" and "liberty" (freedom) there is a link between the words. Most of the common conviction about the importance of individual freedom lies at the heart of liberalism comments. According to Sabine, liberalism, socialism, conservatism is located between the narrow sense, in the broad sense, a political theory opposed to communism and fascism. In fact, the basic properties according to their reported that various thinkers of liberalism. However, when viewed with a general point of view, be said to be four basic elements of classical liberalism: individualism, freedom, spontaneous order and the market economy, rule of law and limited government. a) Individualism Liberal thinkers in all, the individual constitutes the basis for social theory. Both ontological and methodological individualism of liberalism bireyciliktir. Based on the individual asset. The presence of an individual class, the public, such as "wholes" of the existence of truth. The individual, society is superior to all the buildings. In theory, there has been an individual before society, and therefore the community before the individual has rights. Individualism on the other hand, the individual as a human being able to select their own ends, freely able to perform and requires them to perform the necessary actions. For this, the individual must be free. In addition, the individual can not intervene in a private sphere of life, no one is available. This area of ​​the state also should not be raped as other individuals. Therefore, the limited range of motion of the state. Thus, the rule of law and limited government to the principle of individualism is reached.     b) freedom One of the values ​​of liberalism, the freedom given to the maximum value. Conception of freedom that liberalism is usually referred to as negative freedom. The basis of the negative freedom of the individual from the outside without being under a compulsion behave arbitrarily, and can be moved freely. Behavior of an individual, unless the movement is free to intervene by others. Here freedom is freedom from something (freedom from) freedom to something (freedom to) is not. Something which is fundamental to ensure individual freedom, but is keeping its exposure to external pressure and stress. According to the classical liberal understanding of freedom, the greatest threat to the state. State to deny the freedom of individuals, is a despot who does not should be avoided. The way to limit the movement area of ​​the state, it is to connect some of the rules. Liberalism is an important part of a conception of freedom or economic freedom. It is meant to make, or generally as expressed in economic activity is to have the right to economic entrepreneurship. This means that the market economy.     c) spontaneous order and the market economy A very important feature of the market system, the system is voluntary in all human relations. Coercion has no place in the functioning of the market order. Individuals in the State's duty, the protection and proper functioning of the market economy is to prevent the harmful actions. The principal driving force of the market economy, the price system, ie those who are willing to take and sell the whole of the rate of change appears as a result of mutual actions. They provided a satisfactory level of selling space and a process of reconciliation. Market economy, social cooperation under the division of labor or the means of production are held by the state or society is different from the system. Alternatives to the market economy, socialism, communism, planned economy, or is devletkapitalizmi. An example of spontaneous order arising from the functioning of the market system of competition has a lot of multi-functional. Competition can not survive without a market system. Competition, rather than those who are less useful in more useful places of production methods, high-efficiency, less productive employees, protects against an opponent. Everyone's best tricks to do the job, and each factor of production used where most needed, ie, opens the way to progress and improvement in providing the most efficient resource allocation.       d) Rule of Law, and Limited Government There are two candidates to violate human rights by force. The first individuals. Criminal status of an individual to another individual, an event that is difficult to use. The second is the state. Unrestrained, the greatest threat to freedom of human beings in a state not connected to the rules. Boundedness nature of the liberal state, "the rule of law" or "the rule of law" we see that the concepts are expressed. Natural law is, before the government and it is binding. Usually limited to the same duties imposed on the state of classical liberal writers: Justice, internal security and national defense. In other words, courts, police and army. These limits to be connected to avoid compromising the state's legal norms. Liberal authors state, "social justice" to assume as a function of providing, monitoring of redistributive policies is wrong. This process ends with the restriction of freedoms. To guarantee individual freedoms is essential for the understanding of the rule of law and limited government.               Features of liberalism appeared in different ways in different sources. Sometimes these features as follows açıklarlarlar thinkers advocating liberalism.      a) Individualism b) Freedom c) the natural order d) Economic Rationality and human (Homo Ekonomikus) e) The Economics of Fiyasa f) Limited and the Responsible Government Again, these features are identical to the concepts described above, and about whatever liberalism gives us information about liberalism.             Liberalism, as can be seen at the same time as it is done too much advocacy, there are criticisms. "Individuals and communities in the management of free competition, and thus argues that leads to social injustice and inequality." As mentioned in the form of criticism. "Concentration of power in any way based on individual liberties and sovereign state and the dominant conception of how people eventually erase bağdaştırılacağını working to resolve, as a result of their political, economic or political power in the hands of any power to prevent the collection of formulas, methods to produce a convenient concept. Adopt the most basic value of freedom

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